Research and development is what scientific and technological and medical companies engage in to find new designs. This can be an expensive pursuit, given the costs of materials, machines and skilled specialists. Yet the development of a new design can bring financial rewards, as well as the benefits of developing a new medicine, gadget or piece of software.
In 2002, US$289 billion was spent on research and development in the United States; in the same year there was practically no research and development spending in Angola. It is thus unsurprising that the number of patents granted and the value of royalty and license fees received are also vastly different between these places.